raison d'être

من ويكاموس، القاموس الحر
اذهب إلى: تصفح، ابحث

قالب:wikipedia

إِنْجِلِيْزِيَّة[عدل]

المعاني[عدل]

Alternative spellings[عدل]

Etymology[عدل]

From قالب:F. [[raison d'être#قالب:lang:fr|raison d’être]] .

لفظ[عدل]

المعاني[عدل]

اسم[عدل]

قالب:en-noun

  1. The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone; the purpose of something or someone.
    Surfing became his raison d’être.
  2. صِيْغَةُ جَمْعٍ مُفْرَدُهَا [[raison d’être]].
    • 1966, Maurice Godelier, Rationality and irrationality in economics, London, published by Francois Maspero, pg. 317 (quoted in Michael W. Coy, "Tugen Monopoly: Capitalism and Conflict in the Mountains of Kenya," Anthropology & Humanism Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1988, pg. 41, Full article - .pdf):
    • These raison d'etre and this evolution are not merely the achievement of men's conscious activity but are the unintentional results of their social activity.
    • 2003, Seta Fumihiko, Kim Chang-Gi, Lai Shen-Chiang and Onishi Takashi, Abstract for "A Study on the Transition of National Development Strategies in Korea, Taiwan and Japan, Characterized by Developmentalism" (「開発主義に特徴付けられた 日本・台湾・韓国の国土開発戦略の変遷についての一考察」), full paper is pp. 52-61 of "Proceedings", International Symposium on City Planning 2003, The City Planning Institute of Japan, Sapporo, Japan, Abstract:
      National development plans and programs are in particular under harsh discussions and criticism including these raison d'etre in some countries, for these plans and programs have supported construction of rather inefficient infrastructure in less-development area.
    • 2007, Chambi Chachage, "Bringing African Studies Back to Africa: Beyond the ‘African-Africanist’ Divides," paper prepared for the 2nd AEGIS Conference on African Studies (ECAS) at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands, 11-14th July, 2007 (Abstract, Full paper - .doc):
      With hindsight knowledge, it is interesting to note that these three raison d’etre and their ramifications were situated in a broader context of contestations over the whole enterprise of knowledge production and consumption.

Usage notes[عدل]

  • As this is a foreign phrase, it is usually written in italics.

See also[عدل]

Translations[عدل]

References[عدل]

  1. raison” and “être” in the Trésor de la Langue Française, © 2007 — Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales
  2. The Concise Oxford English Dictionary [Eleventh Edition]

Dutch[عدل]

لفظ[عدل]

اسم[عدل]

قالب:nl-noun2

  1. raison d’être

فَرَنْسِيَّة[عدل]

المعاني[عدل]

لفظ[عدل]

المعاني[عدل]

اسم[عدل]

raison d’être

  1. raison d’être